Ralph Albert Blakelock (1847–1919)

November 11–December 10, 2016
Over 125 paintings for exhibition and sale

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ONE HUNDRED YEARS AGO, in the backwoods of Upstate New York, he languished in a mental institution as his paintings began to break American records. So great was his fame that at an auction in the Plaza Hotel ballroom the total realized for his paintings exceeded the totals for the Monets, the Rembrandts, the Renoirs, the Pissarros, and the Botticellis.

Forever true to his own vision, he lived in abject poverty in the years before he was institutionalized, and even then he never ceased painting, pulling out his own hair for brush bristles and using tobacco juice to augment the meager supply of paint he possessed.

His influence and admiration reached across every genre of painting. The Ashcan leader and revered teacher Robert Henri admired his work. William Merritt Chase, the premier impressionist and member of the elite group known as The Ten, purchased his work. The most distinguished modernists recognized his brilliance; George Bellows called him a genius, and Marsden Hartley thought his work was a plausible basis for a genuine American art. Pop art star Andy Warhol owned his work, he was abstract expressionist master Franz Kline’s favorite artist, and contemporary realist Jamie Wyeth has a Blakelock in his current collection.

The critics were equally as ebullient. Headlines about Ralph Albert Blakelock were often found on the front pages of the leading newspapers:

One of the greatest artists America has produced.
The New York Times, 1942

He made a strong impression not only upon American art, but upon the art of the world.
New York Tribune, 1916

[Among] a small group of about the strongest individualists in the history of art.
The New Yorker, 1947

Iconic Nineteenth-Century American Landscape Painter

By Margarita Karasoulas

Widely regarded as the “mad genius” of the art world, Ralph Albert Blakelock is one of the great visionaries of the nineteenth century, renowned for his fiercely independent style and luminous landscapes that became the hallmark of his pictorial oeuvre.

I. Biography
II. Chronology
III. Collections
IV. Exhibitions
V. Memberships
VI. Notes
VII. Suggested Resources

I. Biography

“A picture is emotion, not industry.” – Ralph Albert Blakelock[1]

Born in 1847 in New York City, Ralph Albert Blakelock came from a relatively well-to-do family. His mother, Caroline Carry was American, while his father, Ralph B. Blakelock was born in England. Blakelock’s father was originally employed as a police officer, but he later became a successful homeopathic doctor.[2] In 1864, R.A. Blakelock passed competitive entry examinations to attend the Free Academy of the City of New York with aspirations of becoming a physician, though he withdrew from school in February 1866 to pursue a career as an artist.[3] His uncle, a music teacher and amateur landscape painter first encouraged him to paint.[4] Though he was largely self-taught, Blakelock worked briefly with the landscape painter James A. Johnson, a neighbor and friend of the Hudson River School artist Frederic Edwin Church.[5] Blakelock showcased his superior technical abilities and originality from a young age. He began exhibiting at the National Academy of Design in 1867, at the age of twenty, though he would not achieve fame until the end of his life and career.

While most of Blakelock’s contemporaries sought inspiration in Europe, he traveled to the American West, where nature was still untouched and in its primeval glory. From 1869–1871 he visited Kansas, Colorado, Wyoming, Utah, Nevada, California, and went as far as Mexico, Panama, and Jamaica.[6] Little is known about his sojourn, except that he traveled alone and on horseback, recording sketches that were later translated to canvas upon his return to the Northeast. These experiences inspired a number of works, particularly his famous Indian encampment scenes, which captured views of Native American tribes from a distance, unseen by the subject. Though Blakelock did not often document their activities or reveal much from an anthropological or historical standpoint, his treatment of these figures was sympathetic and provided a haunting portrayal of an unusual subject during this period.[7]

In 1877 Blakelock married Cora Rebecca Bailey, whom he had known as a child during summers spent in Vermont with his family. They moved to East Orange, NJ, where he took on a job painting plaques and decorative panels for an art factory in Newark.[8] The pair bore nine children during the course of their marriage; this and a lack of patronage contributed to a tremendous financial strain and often abject poverty. Blakelock took on odd jobs and painted smaller-scale works which he sold quickly in order to provide for his family. As a consequence, his works varied widely in quality in style. As his wife explained, “His best work took a long time to complete and in the meantime we had to live. Pictures were painted to keep things going.”[9] Blakelock eventually experienced nervous breakdowns and was committed for schizophrenia shortly after the birth of his ninth child in 1899. He spent the remainder of his years in an asylum in Middletown, New York, where he suffered from grand delusions that he possessed a great amount of wealth.10 Ironically, the recognition and success he yearned for throughout his career came after he was institutionalized. Following his breakdown, the art world lauded the mad artist for his ingenuity and creativity, sealing his reputation as one of the most visionary artists of the nineteenth century.

Blakelock is best remembered for his innovations in subject matter and technical execution. Landscapes were an overriding theme and featured panoramic, expansive skies, lush vegetation, and delicately silhouetted trees. In addition to Indian encampments, Blakelock was famous for his moonlit night scenes, rendered with a muted, dark palette and carefully controlled tonalities that earned him the title “painter of darkness.”[11] His poetic, evocative works were characteristically infused with mystery, solitude, and mysticism that conveyed a powerful mood to the viewer. Blakelock also experimented with a variety of media such as the petroleum-based pigment bitumen, copal varnish, and talc. He imparted rich, layered textures to the canvas, using broad, impasto brushwork or a staccato-like application of pigments. He also utilized an innovative accretion technique described by his first biographer, Elliot Daingerfield: “When the silvery ground of his picture was hard and dry, he floated upon it more forms, using thin paints much richer in quality of color; when partially dry these were flattened with a palette knife, the forms brought into relief by subtle wipings, and once more allowed to dry. This process was repeated frequently, and when the surface became gummy or over-glazed, he reduced it by grinding with pumice stone. The effect of this would bring the under silver of his first impasto into view, and with this for his key of grey he developed his theme, drawing with the darker and relieving with the under paint.”[12]

Since few of Blakelock’s works are dated, his stylistic development is difficult to trace; nonetheless, his art represented the confluence of several nineteenth-century art movements. It is generally thought that his early style fell within the confines of the Hudson River School due to his close attention to detail and painterly handling.[13] In many ways, however, he deviated from the style’s naturalistic tradition. His scenes were of nondescript locales, less theatrical, and did not always adhere to the photographic realism the Hudson River artists favored. The emotive, individualistic qualities of the Barbizon School were more closely linked with Blakelock’s aesthetic, as were the dramatic, expressive characteristics that found precedence in European Romanticism. Blakelock’s art was anachronistically advanced for his time, forecasting the advent of Modernism in America. While he was frequently compared to several of his Tonalist colleagues, particularly Albert Pinkham Rhyder, his works also possessed subtle nuances that hinted at abstraction.[14] Ultimately, Blakelock’s artistic production was highly personal, creative, and subjective, stemming more from his inner vision and imagination than from contemporary and existing trends.

The sensationalism and notoriety that surrounded Blakelock in the years prior to his death signaled his ultimate acceptance by members of the art world. In 1913, a Senator Clark purchased one of his paintings for a record auction price of $13,900. Just three years later, another moonlight scene, Brook by Moonlight secured an even higher record price of $20,000, the highest amount ever paid for the work of a living American artist to that point.[15] Critical reception of Blakelock’s works also reached new heights. The influential art critic Edward Alden Jewell announced that “by every right, he deserves a niche equal in importance to the positions held by Winslow Homer, Albert P. Ryder, and Thomas Eakins.”[16] By his death in 1919, Blakelock had made rich contributions to the American art scene and was revered as the country’s greatest painter. The life and art of this fascinating, eccentric artist continues to inspire the art world even today. His works are held in every major American museum including The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Brooklyn Museum of Art, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Smithsonian Museum of American Art, and Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

II. Chronology

1847 Born on October 15th on Christopher Street in New York City.
1864 Passed competitive examinations and entered the Free Academy of the City of New York (now known as the City College of New York).
1866 Withdrew from the Free Academy in February after declining academic performance.
1867 Exhibited for the first time at the National Academy of Design.
1868 Earliest dated work, Sunrise.
1869–1871 Embarked on his first trip to the American West.
1874 Began exhibiting his work in his studio in New York City.
1877 Married Cora Rebecca Bailey. Moved to East Orange, NJ.
1890 Suffered from first mental breakdown.
1899 Birth of ninth child led to a nervous breakdown. Committed to the Long Island Hospital in Flatbush, NY.
1900 Work received Honorary Mention in the Paris Exposition Universelle.
1901 Transferred to the insane asylum in Middletown, NY.
1913 Senator Clarke purchase one of his works for the record price of $13,900.
Elected Associate National Academician by the National Academy of Design.
1916 Best known work, “Moonlight” purchased by the Toledo Museum of Art for the record price of $20,000, the highest price ever paid at the time for the work of a living American artist.
Elected National Academician by the National Academy of Design.
1919 Passed away on August 19th at the age of 72 in a cottage in the Adirondacks.

III. Collections

Addison Gallery of American Art, Phillips Academy, Andover, Massachusetts
Akron Art Museum, Ohio
Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York
Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin, Ohio
The Arkell Museum at Canajoharie, New York
The Art Institute of Chicago, Illinois
Brooklyn Museum, New York
Buffalo Bill Center of the West, Cody, Wyoming
The Butler Institute of American Art, Youngstown, Ohio
Carnegie Museum of Art, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Charles Allis Art Museum, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
The Charles Hosmer Morse Museum of American Art, Winter Park, Florida
Chrysler Museum of Art, Norfolk Virginia
The Cleveland Museum of Art, Ohio
Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center, Colorado
Crocker Art Museum, Sacramento, California
Dallas Museum of Art, Texas
David Owsley Museum of Art at Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana
de Young Museum, Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, California
Denver Art Museum, Colorado
Eli and Edythe Broad Art Museum, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan
Figge Art Museum, Davenport, Iowa
Flint Institute of Arts, Michigan
Georgia Museum of Art, Athens, Georgia
Haggerty Museum of Art, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
The Heckscher Museum of Art, Huntington, New York
Hunter Museum of American Art, Chattanooga, Tennessee
Joslyn Art Museum, Omaha, Nebraska
Lauren Rogers Museum of Art, Laurel, Mississippi
Los Angeles County Museum of Art, California
Mattatuck Museum, Waterbury, Connecticut
Mead Art Museum, Amherst College, Massachusetts
Memorial Art Gallery of the University of Rochester, New York
Memphis Brooks Museum of Art, Memphis, Tennessee
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York
The Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Minnesota
Montclair Art Museum, New Jersey
Mount Holyoke College Art Museum, South Hadley, Massachusetts
Museum of Art at Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachusetts
Museum of Nebraska Art, Kearney, Nebraska
Museum of the City of New York, New York
National Academy Museum, New York, New York
National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Missouri
Newark Museum, New Jersey
New-York Historical Society, New York
North Carolina Museum of Art, Raleigh, North Carolina
Oakland Museum of California, California
Panhandle-Plains Historical Museum, Canyon, Texas
Parrish Art Museum, Water Mill, New York
The Phillips Collection, Washington, DC
Phoenix Art Museum, Arizona
Portland Art Museum, Oregon
Ruth Chandler Williamson Gallery, Scripps College, Claremont, California
Saint Louis Art Museum, Missouri
The San Diego Museum of Art, California
Sheldon Museum of Art, University of Nebraska—Lincoln, Nebraska
Smith College Museum of Art, Northampton, Massachusetts
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC
Toledo Museum of Art, Ohio
The University of Arizona Museum of Art, Tucson, Arizona
Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art, Hartford, Connecticut
The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, Maryland
Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, Connecticut

IV. Exhibitions

1867–69, 1871–73, 1879, 1880, 1882–86, 1888, 1894–96, 1898, 1899, 1910, 1919 National Academy of Design, New York, New York
1874, 1879, 1880, 1884 Brooklyn Art Association, New York
1880, 1884 Society of American Artists, New York, New York
1884 American Art Union, New York, New York
1889, 1904, 1939 Art Institute of Chicago, Illinois
1893 World’s Columbian Exposition, Chicago, Illinois
1900 Exposition Universelle, Paris, France (prize)
Lotos Club, New York, New York
1902 Lotos Club, New York, New York, Exhibitions of Paintings of Ralph Albert Blakelock, From the Collection of the Honorable Frederick S. Gibbs
1902, 1903 Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
1905 Nashville Art Club, Tennessee (1st annual art show, traveled to Atlanta Art Club, Georgia)
1907–10, 1916, 1957 Corcoran Gallery, Washington, DC
1913 Moulton & Ricketts, Chicago, Illinois, Loan Exhibition of Important Works by George Inness, Alexander Wyant, Ralph Blakelock
Worcester Art Museum, Massachusetts
1915 Panama-Pacific International Exposition, San Francisco, California
1916 Galleries of Henry Reinhardt, New York, New York, Loan Exhibition of the Paintings by Ralph Blakelock, A. N. A.
Young’s Art Galleries, Chicago, Illinois, Blakelock—His Art and His Family
Butler Institute of American Art, Youngstown, Ohio
Knoedler Gallery, New York, New York
1917 R. C. and N. M. Vose Gallery, Boston, Massachusetts, Exhibition of Paintings by Ralph Albert Blakelock
1919 Union League Club, New York, New York
1922 Dudensing Galleries, New York, New York, A Small Group of Paintings by Ralph A. Blakelock
1934 Findlay Galleries, Chicago, Illinois, Exhibition of Small Paintings by Ralph Blakelock, NA
1942 Babcock Galleries, New York, New York
1947 Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, New York, Ralph Albert Blakelock Centenary Exhibition in Celebration of the Centennial of the City College of New York
1962 Bertha Lewison Gallery, New York, New York, Paintings by Ralph Albert Blakelock and Some of his Contemporaries
1965 Contemporary Arts Association, Houston, Texas, Two Romantic Painters: Adolphe Monticelli, French (1824–1886); Ralph Albert Blakelock, American (1847–1919)
1969 The Art Galleries, University of California Santa Barbara, California; California Palace of the Legion of Honor, San Francisco, California; Phoenix Art Museum, Arizona; The Heckscher Museum, Huntington, New York, The Enigma of Ralph A. Blakelock, 1847–1919
1973 M. Knoedler & Co., New York, New York, Ralph Albert Blakelock, 1849 [sic]–1919
1975 Shledon Memorial Art Gallery, Lincoln, Nebraska; New Jersey State Museum, Trenton, New Jersey, Ralph Albert Blakelock, 1847–1919
1977 Fenn Galleries, Santa Fe, New Mexico, Ralph Albert Blakelock
1981 Vose Galleries, Boston, Massachusetts, Ralph Albert Blakelock 1847–1919—Drawings
1987 Salander-O’Reilly Galleries, New York, New York, Ralph Albert Blakelock (1847–1919)
1995–97 Mitchell Museum, Mount Vernon, Illinois; Heckscher Museum, Huntington, New York; Pensacola Museum of Art, Florida; Krasl Art Center, St. Joseph, Michigan; Frye Art Museum, Seattle, Washington; Paine Art Center, Oshkosh, Wisconsin, Blakelock: Visionary in Context
1998 Salander O’Reilly Galleries, New York, New York, Ralph Albert Blakelock: Paintings
2004 Thomas Cole National Historic Site, Catskill, New York, Ralph Albert Blakelock: Paintings, Drawings, & Watercolors
2005 Questroyal Fine Art, LLC, New York, New York, Ralph Albert Blakelock: The Great Mad Genius
2008–9 Sheldon Memorial Art Gallery, Lincoln, Nebraska; National Academy Museum, New York, New York, The Unknown Blakelock

V. Memberships

Salmagundi Club, ca. 1912
National Academy of Design, Associate 1913, Academician 1916

VI. Notes

1. “Aged Artist, After 17 Years in Asylum,” Washington Post, April 16, 1916.
2. Abraham A. Davidson, Ralph Albert Blakelock (University Park, PA.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1996), 6.
3. David Gebhard and Phyllis Stuurman, The Enigma of Ralph A. Blakelock, 1847–1919 (Santa Barbara: University of California, 1969), 5.
4. Gail Levin, “Wandering in the American Landscape,” New York Times, March 2, 2003.
5. Mark D. Mitchell, “Radical Color: Blakelock in Context,” in The Unknown Blakelock, ed. Karen O. Janovy (Lincoln,NE: Sheldon Memorial Art Gallery, 2008), 30.
6. Levin.
7. Janice Driesbach, foreword to The Unknown Blakelock, ed. Karen O. Janovy, 15.
8. Piri Halasz, “Art by Blakelock Shown in Trenton,” New York Times, May 18, 1975.
9. Mitchell, 33.
10. Ibid., 35.
11. Roberta Smith, “Art: The Landscapes of Ralph A. Blakelock,” New York Times, September 11, 1987.
12. Gebhard and Stuurman, 17.
13. Ibid., 13.
14. Mitchell, 39–41.
15. Davidson, 1.
16. Edward Alden Jewell, “Blakelock Work Put On Exhibition,” New York Times, January 13, 1942.

VII. Suggested Resources

Daingerfield, Elliott. Ralph Albert Blakelock. New York: Frederic Fairchild Sherman, 1914.
Davidson, Abraham A. Ralph Albert Blakelock. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1996.
Gebhard, David and Phyllis Stuurman. The Enigma of Ralph A. Blakelock, 1847–1919. Santa Barbara: University of California, 1969.
Geske, Norman A. Ralph Albert Blakelock (1847–1919). New York: Salander-O’Reilly Galleries, 1987.
———. Ralph Albert Blakelock, 1847–1919. Lincoln, NE: Nebraska Art Association, 1974.
———. Beyond Madness: The Art of Ralph Blakelock, 1847–1919. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2007.
Goodrich, Lloyd. Ralph Albert Blakelock, Centenary Exhibition: In Celebration of the Centennial of The City College of New York. New York: Whitney Museum of American Art, 1947.
Janovy, Karen O., ed. The Unknown Blakelock. Lincoln, NE: Sheldon Memorial Art Gallery, 2008.
Morton, Frederick W. “Work of Ralph A. Blakelock.” Brush & Pencil 9 (February 1902): 257–59.
Pattison, James William, Elliott Daingerfield, George W. Stevens, and Harriet Monroe. Catalogue of the Loan Exhibition of Important Works by George Inness, Alexander Wyant, Ralph Blakelock. Chicago: Moulton & Ricketts, 1913.
Pattison, James William. “The Art of Blakelock.” Fine Arts Journal 27 (October 1912): 641–8.
Platt, Myra, Glyn Vincent, Abraham A. Davidson, and Norman Geske. Ralph Albert Blakelock: The Great Mad Genius. New York: Questroyal Fine Art, 2005.
Tanzer, Jack, Warren J. Adelson, David D. Blakelock, and Susielies M. Blakelock. Ralph Albert Blakelock 1849 [sic]–1919. New York: M. Knoedler & Company, 1973.
Vincent, Glyn. The Unknown Night: The Genius and Madness of R. A. Blakelock, an American Painter. New York: Grove Press, 2003.
Young, J. W. Catalog of the Works of R. A. Blakelock, N. A. and of His Daughter Marian Blakelock. Chicago: Young’s Art Galleries, 1916.
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Ralph Albert Blakelock

Paintings by Ralph Albert Blakelock