Marsden Hartley | Questroyal

Marsden Hartley (1877–1943)

Marsden Hartley (1877–1943)

An influential American modernist whose career was launched by Alfred Stieglitz, Marsden Hartley is best-known for his early German abstract paintings and southwestern landscapes and still lifes, as well as his late, emotionally evocative Maine scenes, all of which are considered valuable contributions to the modern art movement in America.

By Chelsea DeLay

I. Biography
II. Chronology
III. Collections
IV. Exhibitions
V. Memberships
VI. Notes
VII. Suggested Resources

I. Biography

In 1877, Edmund Hartley was born in Lewiston, Maine, to English immigrant parents. When he was only eight years old Hartley’s mother passed away. In his autobiography he explained how her death was a defining moment in his life: “I was to know complete isolation from that moment forward.”(1) Four years later, his father remarried Martha Marsden and the couple moved to Cleveland, Ohio, while Hartley chose to remain in Auburn, Maine, and live with his older sister until 1893, when he joined his father and stepmother in Cleveland. He enrolled as a student at the Cleveland School of Art where he was exposed to the transcendental writings of Ralph Waldo Emerson, which strongly influenced the direction of his career.

In 1899, at the age of twenty-two, Hartley left Cleveland after receiving a stipend funding five years of study in New York. He first signed up for classes at the Chase School and transferred shortly thereafter to the National Academy of Design, where he became acquainted with future modernists Abraham Walkowitz and Maurice Sterne. He experienced his first taste of European Modernism when he came across the unique method of Italian painter Giovanni Segantini, known for his Segantini “stitch”, a small overlapping and interweaving brushstroke. Hartley’s colorful interpretation of this method would later become an identifiable characteristic in his work.(2) Hartley returned to Lewiston, Maine in 1906, at which point he decided to adopt his stepmother’s maiden name and began to go by the name of Marsden Hartley. He spent the following summer working at the Green Acre religious community in Eliot, Maine, where he became fascinated by spiritualism and mysticism. These interests, combined with his admiration for American tonalists George Inness and John Henry Twachtman, led to his early experimentation with incorporating symbolic aspects into his paintings of the surrounding landscape.(3)

Upon his return to New York in 1909, Hartley’s landscape paintings caught the eye of the famous photographer and gallerist Alfred Stieglitz, who offered to host the artist’s first solo exhibition at his 291 Gallery. This exhibition established Hartley’s connection to the American modernist movement, and he became an integral member of Stieglitz’s circle, an illustrious group of modernists including Charles Demuth, Arthur Dove, John Marin, Georgia O’Keeffe, and Paul Strand. During the months following his exhibition, Hartley became acquainted with dealer N.E. Montross, who invited the artist to his gallery to view a small marine painting by Albert Pinkham Ryder. Moonlit Marine elicited a deeply profound reaction from Hartley, who described, “I felt as if I had read a page of the Bible…it had in it a sense of realism besides that bore such a force of nature itself as to leave me breathless.”(4) His personal response to and interpretation of Ryder’s work led to a stylistic shift in Hartley’s approach and his next series of paintings, known as the Dark Mountain paintings. In these works, Hartley adopted a darker, monochromatic palette and his forms became much more expressive and abstract in their appearance.(5)

Thanks to connections and funds provided by Stieglitz, Hartley traveled to Paris for the first time in 1912, where he frequented the studio of Gertrude Stein, famous for displaying the most current examples of European Modernism. He immersed himself within the avant-garde circles of the Parisian art scene, attended modernist exhibitions throughout the city, and became friends with Arthur B. Carles, Robert Delaunay, Charles Demuth, Alfred Maurer, and Edward Steichen. Hartley was also drawn to a group of German artists, which included sculptor Arnold Rönnenbeck and his cousin, a German officer named Lieutenant Karl von Freyburg.(6) Germany held inherent appeal for Hartley, who moved to Berlin in 1913. In a letter to Stieglitz written that year, Hartley wrote, “It is with Germans I have always found myself both in New York and Paris—and now it is in Germany that I find my creative conditions—and it is there I must go.”(7)

The two years Hartley spent painting in Berlin resulted in a body of career-defining work that was well-received by German audiences—he was one of only a few Americans invited to exhibit at Berlin’s largest avant-garde exhibition, Erster deutscher Herbstsalon, and also had work included in the prestigious Münchener Graphik-Verlag exhibition.(8) Hartley remained in Germany until December 1915, at which point he was forced to return to New York by the escalating tensions caused by World War I. Life for the artist began a downward spiral upon his arrival back to the United States: his step-mother passed away less than one year after his father’s death in 1914, and the American public found an unwelcome sympathy in his German-inspired canvases.

In an effort to reconnect with his American audience, Hartley briefly returned to his native state of Maine in search of artistic inspiration, before deciding to spend the summer of 1916 in Provincetown, Massachusetts. His attention focused on subjects typically seen throughout the area, resulting in elegantly abstracted depictions of sailboats and New England houses, as well as refined floral scenes and still lifes. Craving a change in scenery, Hartley moved to New Mexico in 1918, where he was drawn to the areas of Taos and Santa Fe by the natural landscape and Native American culture. He developed a penchant for working in pastels during the eighteen months he spent in the southwest, where he naturally gravitated towards landscapes and still lifes. Hartley spent a majority of the 1920s in Berlin and France, where he continued to produce landscapes inspired by the natural landscape of New Mexico. It was during this period, however, that his admiration for Paul Cézanne peaked; Hartley spent two years in the artist’s French hometown of Aix-en-Provence studying and painting, producing boldly-colored scenes of the area’s mountainous terrain that were considered an accomplished nod to Cézanne’s modernist approach.

Hartley returned to the United States in 1930 only to be faced with the harsh aftermath of the stock market crash and the ensuing era of the Great Depression. However, just one year later, he experienced a significant turnaround in his career during a visit to Gloucester, Massachusetts. Just outside the town limits of this popular tourist destination, Hartley stumbled upon the barren landscape of Dogtown, an abandoned eighteenth-century city, and his painted scenes of the area were well-received by American audiences. He was the recipient of a travel grant from The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in 1931, which funded a painting trip to Cuernavaca, Mexico; the following year a solo exhibition of his work was held at the Galeria de la Escuela Central de Artes Plasticas in Mexico City. Hartley left Mexico for Germany in 1933, and on this trip the Bavarian Alps held an aesthetic appeal for him. He set forth in making detailed studies of the mountainous terrain in silverpoint drawings and pastels.

Hartley returned from Germany again in 1934 and worked briefly in the easel division of the Public Works of Art Project, but quit after only one month. He spent the next two years in Nova Scotia with the Masons, a French-Canadian fishing family, during which time he grew particularly close to the family’s two sons.; the tragic drowning of their two sons in 1936 affected Hartley so deeply that he created a series of portraits depicting the family, which are widely considered among his most moving works.(9) Deeply charged with emotional undercurrents of love and the pain of loss, these works were rendered in a powerful yet simple style that distinguishes Hartley’s later worksHartley retired to Maine in last years of his life, before passing away at the age of sixty-six in the city of Ellsworth.

Since his death in 1943, Hartley’s work has continued to captivate American audiences, as well as those abroad; his work has been the subject of solo exhibitions and retrospectives held at prestigious institutions including the Amon Carter Museum of American Art, Fort Worth, Texas; The Art Institute of Chicago, Illinois; Phillips Memorial Gallery, Washington, D.C.; The Royal Scottish Academy, Edinburgh, Scotland; Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, D.C.; and Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, New York. Examples from his oeuvre are highly sought-after by both American and European collectors—several of Hartley’s still lifes, New Mexico landscapes, German paintings, and Maine scenes have individually realized over one million dollars at auction. His work is represented in the permanent collections of over one hundred distinguished museums and institutions, including Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, Bentonville, Arkansas; The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York; Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachusetts; Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, Texas; National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.; and Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

II. Chronology

1877 Born Edmund Hartley January 4 in Lewiston, Maine
1885 Hartley’s mother dies, his younger sisters are sent to Cleveland, Ohio, to be raised by an already married sister; Hartley and one married sister remain in Auburn, Maine, with their father
1889 Hartley’s father remarries Martha Marsden and moves to Cleveland to join the rest of the family while Hartley remains in Auburn, Maine
1893 Moves to Cleveland, Ohio, where he is hired to work at a marble quarry
1896 Begins art classes with Cleveland-based painter John Semon
1898 Enrolls in Cleveland School of Art on scholarship
1899 Receives stipend from a trustee of the Cleveland School of Art for five years study in New York; studies at the Chase School in New York City
1900 Spends summer in Lewiston, Maine; enrolls at the National Academy of Design in New York, where he studies for four years
1902 Exhibits at the National Academy of Design, awarded honorable mention and the Suydam Silver Medal for still life drawing
1904–06 Works part-time job as an extra in Proctor’s Theater Company in New York
1906 Returns to Lewiston, Maine to teach painting; assumes step-mother’s maiden name, begins calling himself Edmund Marsden Hartley
1907 Spends the summer at Green Acre, a mystical-intellectual retreat in Eliot, Maine, where his first exhibition is held in the home of Mrs. Ole Bull; moves to Boston, Massachusetts
1908 Drops first name, goes by Marsden Hartley
1909 Meets Alfred Stieglitz in April, holds first solo exhibition at Stieglitz’s 291 Gallery in New York; introduced to the works of Albert Pinkham Ryder by dealer N. E. Montross
1912 Second solo exhibition at Stieglitz’s 291 Gallery; Travels to Paris, France and becomes acquainted with Gertrude Stein
1913 Meets Wassily Kandinsky in Munich; Moves to Berlin; Briefly returns to New York in November
1914 Moves to Berlin; Father passes away; Began German officer paintings
1915 Step-mother Martha Marsden passes away; exhibits forty-five paintings and abstract drawings at the Münchener Graphik-Verlag in Berlin; returns to New York in December
1916 Begins paintingPaints in synthetic cubist style; Spends summer in Provincetown, Massachusetts, meets Eugene O’Neill and the Provincetown Players
1918 Travels to New Mexico; paints landscape scenes depicting Santa Fe and Taos
1919 Visits La Cañada, California to see Carl Sprinchorn; travels to San Francisco
1920 Appointed first secretary of the Société Anonyme, founded by Marcel Duchamp, Katherine Dreier, and Man Ray; spends summer in Gloucester, Massachusetts, along with Stuart Davis
1921 Publishes Adventure in the Arts; Auctions 117 works at Anderson Galleries in New York to raise money for a return trip to Europe; leaves for Paris in July; Moves to Berlin in November
1922 Experiments with making still-life lithographs
1923 Publishes Twenty-five Poems; Travels to Vienna and Italy, spends eight weeks in Florence and Christmas in Rome with Maruice Sterne
1924 Returns to New York in February, travels to London and Paris in the summer
1925 Moves to Vence, France in August
1926 Moves to Aix-en-Provence
1928 Travels to Chicago in March to his exhibition at the Arts Club of Chicago; travels to Denver and Maine, returns to Paris in August
1929 Exhibits 100 landscapes and Parisian still lifes at Intimate Gallery in New York
1931 Receives Guggenheim grant to paint for one year outside of the United States, decides to work in Mexico; spends summer in Gloucester, Massachusetts, begins first series of Dogtown paintings
1932 Travels to Cuernavaca, Mexico, in May
1933 Solo exhibition at the Galeria de la Escuela Central de Artes Plasticas in Mexico City; leaves Mexico for Germany in April; writes autobiography, Somehow a Past, in November and December
1934 Hired by the federal government in the easel division of the Public Works of Art Project, quits after one month
1935 Destroys 100 paintings and drawings stored in a warehouse in an effort to reduce the cost of storage; summers in Bermuda, paints landscapes and pastels of fish and flowers; travels to Blue Rocks, Nova Scotia
1936 Works for the Works Progress Administration from January through May
1937 Last exhibition with Stieglitz at his gallery, An American Place, exhibits recent paintings that are primarily of Nova Scotia; moves to Portland, Maine
1939 Moves to West Brookville, Maine, in July, and then to Bangor, Maine, in September, where he teaches painting at the Bangor Society of Art; takes eight-day trip to Mount Katahdin
1940 Publishes Androscoggin, a volume of poetry
1941 Enters into artist-dealer partnership with MacBeth Gallery; concentrates on writing poetry and essays, publishes Sea Burial; travels to Cincinnati for joint exhibition with Stuart Davis
1942 Receives Fourth Painting Purchase Prize in the exhibition Artists for Victory at The Metropolitan Museum of Art
1943 Dies of heart failure on September 2 in Ellsworth, Maine

III. Collections

Addison Gallery of American Art, Phillips Academy, Andover, Massachusetts
Albright-Knox Art Gallery, New York
Amon Carter Museum of American Art, Texas
Arkansas Art Center, Little Rock, Arkansas
The Art Institute of Chicago, Illinois
The Baltimore Museum of Art, Maryland
Birger Sandzén Memorial Gallery, Lindsborg, Kansas
Blanton Museum of Art, Austin, Texas
Brooklyn Museum, New York
Burchfield Penny Art Center, Buffalo, New York
The Butler Institute of American Art, Youngstown, Ohio
Cape Ann Museum, Gloucester, Massachusetts
Carnegie Museum of Art, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Chrysler Museum of Art, Virginia
Cincinnati Art Museum, Ohio
The Cleveland Museum of Art, Ohio
Colby College Museum of Art, Waterville, Maine
The Columbus Museum, Georgia
Columbus Museum of Art, Ohio
Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
Crocker Art Museum, Sacramento, California
Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, Arkansas
The Cummer Museum of Art & Gardens, Florida
Dallas Museum of Art, Texas
The Dayton Art Institute, Ohio
Delaware Art Museum, Wilmington, Delaware
Denver Art Museum, Colorado
de Young Museum, Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, California
The Eiteljorg Museum of American Indians and Western Art, Indianapolis, Indiana
Georgia Museum of Art, Athens, Georgia
The Heckscher Museum of Art, Huntington, New York
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
Hunter Museum of American Art, Chattanooga, Tennessee
Indianapolis Museum of Art, Indiana
Jule Collins Smith Museum of Fine Art at Auburn University, Alabama
Los Angeles County Museum of Art, California
McNay Art Museum, San Antonio, Texas
Mead Art Museum, Amherst College, Massachusetts Museum, Cambridge, Massachusetts
Memorial Art Gallery of the University of Rochester, New York
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York
Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum, St. Louis, Missouri
The Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Minnesota
Montgomery Museum of Fine Arts, Alabama
Mount Holyoke College Art Museum, South Hadley, Massachusetts
Munson-Williams-Proctor Arts Institute, Museum of Art, Utica, New York
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachusetts
The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, Texas
National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Missouri
Neuberger Museum of Art, Purchase, New York
Newark Museum, New Jersey
New Jersey State Museum, Trenton, New Jersey
New Mexico Museum of Art, Santa Fe, New Mexico
The New Orleans Museum of Art, Louisiana
North Carolina Museum of Art, Raleigh, North Carolina
Ogunquit Museum of American Art, Maine
Palmer Museum of Art, University Park, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Philadelphia Museum of Art, Pennsylvania
The Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C.
Phoenix Art Museum, Arizona
Portland Art Museum, Oregon
Portland Museum of Art, Maine
The Rose Museum of Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts
The Roswell Museum and Art Center, New Mexico
Saint Louis Art Museum, Missouri
The San Diego Museum of Art, Balboa Park, California
Santa Barbara Museum of Art, California
Seattle Art Museum, Washington
Sheldon Museum of Art, University of Nebraska—Lincoln, Nebraska
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, D.C.
The Snite Museum of Art, Notre Dame, Indiana
Toledo Museum of Art, Ohio
Tuscon Museum of Art, Arizona
University of Michigan Museum of Art, Ann Arbor, Michigan
Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art, Hartford, Connecticut
Weisman Art Museum, Minneapolis, Minnesota
Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, New York
Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, Connecticut

IV. Exhibitions

1902 National Academy of Design, New York, New York, honorable mention, Suydam Silver Medal
1909, 1912, 19148, 1916–17 Photo-Secession Galleries (“291”), New York, New York, solo exhibitions
1911 Gallery of the Society of Beaux-Arts Architects, New York, New York
1913 The International Exhibition of Modern Art, New York
Erster deutscher Herbstsalon, Berlin, Germany
1914 Max Liebermann, Berlin, Germany
1915 Schames Galerie, Frankfurt, Germany, solo exhibition
Münchener Graphik-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, solo exhibition
1917 Ogunquit School of Painting and Sculpture, Ogunquit, Maine, solo exhibition
Grand Central Palace, New York, New York
1917, 1921 Society of Independent Artists, New York, New York
1921 Anderson Galleries, New York, New York
1924–26 Galerie Briant-Robert, Paris, France
1928 The Art Club of Chicago, Illinois, solo exhibition
1929 Intimate Gallery, New York, New York, solo exhibition
1930, 1936, 1951 The Museum of Modern Art, New York, New York
1932 Downtown Gallery, New York, New York
1933 Galeria de la Escuela Central de Artes Plasticas, Mexico City, Mexico, solo exhibition
1933–34, 1939–43 The Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, prize, 1940
1934–5, 1937–8, 1940–3, 1946 Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, New York
1937 An American Place, New York, New York
1938–40 Hudson Walker Gallery, New York, New York, solo exhibition
1939 Symphony Hall, Boston, Massachusetts, solo exhibition
1941–2 The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York, purchase prize, 1942
1941 Cincinnati Art Museum, Ohio
1942 MacBeth Gallery, New York, New York, solo exhibition
1942, 1968 M. Knoedler and Company, New York, New York, solo exhibitions
1943, 1948, 1950–51, 1955, 1960 Paul Rosenberg and Company, New York, New York, solo exhibitions
1943 Phillips Memorial Gallery, Washington, D.C., solo exhibition
Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
1944 Columbus Gallery of the Fine Arts, Ohio, solo exhibition
The Museum of Modern Art, New York, New York, solo exhibition
Los Angeles County Museum, California, solo exhibition
1946 Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of Design, Providence, Rhode Island
1949 Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, Massachusetts
1951 University Art Museum, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota; retrospective
1955, 1957, 1957, 1959–62, 1972, 1975, 1980 Babcock Galleries, New York, New York, solo exhibition
1958 Museum of New Mexico Art Gallery, Santa Fe, New Mexico, solo exhibition
1960, 1962, 1964 Alfredo Valente Gallery, New York, New York; solo exhibitions
1963 Amon Carter Museum of American Art, Fort Worth, Texas
1964 La Jolla Museum of Art, California
1965 Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, D.C.
1966 Birmingham Museum of Art, Alabama; University Art Museum, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Oklahoma Art Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; Portland Art Museum, Oregon; University of Iowa Art Museum, Iowa City; Colby College Museum of Art, Waterville, Maine; Frye Art Museum, Seattle, Washington; Wichita Art Museum, Kansas; Munson-Williams-Proctor Arts Institute, Museum of Art, Utica, New York, American Federation of Arts traveling exhibition
1969 Bernard Danenberg Galleries, New York, retrospective
1970 Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, D.C., traveling exhibition
1974 Pierce Gallery, Bangor, Maine, solo exhibition
1975 Delaware Art Museum, Wilmington, Delaware
1977 The Royal Scottish Academy, Edinburgh, Scotland; Hayward Gallery, London, England
1978 Treat Gallery, Bates College, Lewiston, Maine, solo exhibition
1979 Städtische Kunsthalle Duüsselforf, Germany
1980 Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, New York; The Art Institute of Chicago, Illinois; Amon Carter Museum of American Art, Texas; University Art Museum, University of California, Berkley, California, retrospective, traveling exhibition
Barridoff Galleries, Portland, Maine, solo exhibition
1985 Cape Ann Historical Association, Gloucester, Massachusetts, solo exhibition
1986 The High Museum of Art, Atlanta, Georgia; Pérez Art Museum Miami, Florida; Brooklyn Museum, New York, traveling exhibition
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, D.C.; Cincinnati Art Museum, Ohio; The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, Texas; Denver Art Museum, Colorado, traveling exhibition
Los Angeles County Museum of Art, California; Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, Illinois; Gemeente Museum, The Hague, Den Haag, Netherlands, solo exhibition
1987 Mount Saint Vincent University Art Gallery, Halifax, Nova Scotia; Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, Canada, solo exhibition
Contemporary Arts Museum, Houston, Texas
1988 Vanderwoude Tananbaum, New York, New York, solo exhibition
Salander-O’Reilly Galleries, New York, New York, solo exhibition
1996 Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachusetts
1998 Newcomb Art Gallery, New Orleans, Louisiana, solo exhibition
1999 Norton Museum of Art, West Palm Beach, Florida, solo exhibition
2003 The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Missouri
2005 Tacoma Art Museum, Washington, solo exhibition
2006 New Mexico Museum of Art, Santa Fe, New Mexico, solo exhibition
2007 El Paso Museum of Art, Texas, solo exhibition
2008 Georgia O'Keeffe Museum, Santa Fe, New Mexico; Amon Carter Museum, Ft. Worth, Texas, solo exhibition, traveling exhibition
Boise Art Museum, Idaho, solo exhibition
Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
Westmoreland Museum of Art, Greensburg, Pennsylvania
2009 Frye Art Museum, Seattle, Washington
2010 The Art Institute of Chicago, Illinois
Phoenix Art Museum, Arizona
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C.
National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
2011 Portland Museum of Art, Maine
High Museum of Art, Atlanta, Georgia
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York
Brooklyn Museum of Art, New York, New York
2012 Boise Art Museum, Idaho, solo exhibition
Alexandre Gallery, New York, New York, solo exhibition
Oklahoma City Museum of Art, Oklahoma
Bruce Silverstein Gallery, New York, New York
Driscoll Babcock Galleries, New York, New York
The Museum of Modern Art, New York, New York
Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, New York
2013 Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens, San Marino, California, solo exhibition
Brooklyn Museum, New York
The John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art, Sarasota, Florida
Delaware Art Museum, Wilmington, Delaware
Dallas Museum of Art, Texas
Royal Academy of Arts, London, United Kingdom
The Museum of Modern Art, New York, New York
Colby College Museum of Art, Waterville, Maine
El Paso Museum of Art, Texas
Boca Raton Museum of Art, Florida
2014 Portland Museum of Art, Maine
Reynolda House Museum of American Art, Winston-Salem, North Carolina
Neue Nationalgalerie, Berlin, Germany; Los Angeles County Museum of Art, California, solo exhibition, traveling exhibition

V. Memberships

Société Anonyme, 1919, secretary

VI. Notes

1. Marsden Hartley, Somehow a Past: The Autobiography of Marsden Hartley, ed. Susan Elizabeth Ryan (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1977), 49.
2. Elizabeth Mankin Kornhauser, “Marsden Hartley: ‘Gaunt Eagle from the Hills of Maine,” Marsden Hartley (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002), 15.
3. Ibid.
4. Gail R. Scott, Marsden Hartley, (New York: Abbeville Press Publishers, 1988), 26.
5. Charles W. Milliard, “Marsden Hartley,” The Hudson Review 33 (Autumn 1980), 415.
6. William H. Robinson, “Marsden Hartley’s Military,” The Bulletin of the Cleveland Museum of Art 76 (January 1989), 8.
7. Johnathan Weinberg, Speaking for Vice: Homosexuality in the Art of Charles Demuth, Marsden Hartley, and the First American Avant-Garde (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1993), 141.
8. Kornhauser, 18.
9. Ibid., 25.

VII. Suggested Resources

Falk, Peter Hastings, ed. Who Was Who in American Art, 1564–1975: 400 Years of Artists in America, vol. II: G–O. Madison, Connecticut: Sound View Press, 1999.
Hartley, Marsden. Somehow a Past: The Autobiography of Marsden Hartley, edited by Susan Elizabeth Ryan. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1977.
Haskell, Barbara. Marsden Hartley. New York: Whitney Museum of American Art, 1980.
Kornhauser, Elizabeth Mankin. Marsden Hartley. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002.