Bruce Crane (1857–1937)
Bruce Crane was one of America’s best-known Tonalists, adapting the style of the Barbizon School to the American tradition. Born in New York City, Crane began his painting career by seeking out the instruction of Alexander Wyant, who took him to paint in the Adirondack and Catskill Mountains. Wyant’s moody, tonal style had a profound influence on Crane’s work, but he quickly abandoned Wyant’s favored wilderness for more picturesque subjects. Concentrating on open pastures, barnyards, and hayfields, Crane responded to nature’s quiet poetry and delicacy of tone.
Crane journeyed to Europe in 1880, spending time in Paris and Grez-Sur-Loing, a pastoral artist’s colony. There, he gained direct exposure to the French Barbizon aesthetic, which introduced an increasingly atmospheric element into his work. When he returned to New York the following year, Crane set out for his favorite painting haunts in the Adirondack woods, Long Island, New Jersey, and Connecticut, creating pastoral landscapes that carried the golden haze of summer or grey light of fall.
Crane’s work was admired by critics and patrons throughout the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries. His paintings were continually on view at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, the Boston Art Club, and the Corcoran Gallery, and he earned numerous honors over the course of his career, winning prizes from the National Academy of Design, the Society of American Artists, the Carnegie Institute, the Salmagundi Club, the Paris Exposition of 1900, and the St. Louis Exposition of 1904. His paintings are now in the collections of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the National Gallery of Art, the Smithsonian American Art Museum, the San Diego Museum of Art, the Santa Barbara Museum of Art, and the Wadsworth Athenaeum Museum of Art.